Researcher

Matthew McBride

Objective

To determine the solubility of trans-cinnamic acid in benzene, toluene and chloroform using the density method.

Procedure

Cinnamic acid was allowed to dissolve into solutions of benzene, toluene and chloroform in a 45C water bath with the purpose of creating saturated solutions. The supernatant from these solutions were removed and placed in a 25C water bath to form a precipitate. The solutions were removed from the precipitates and weighed in volumetric flasks.

Results

ONS-EXP236-Sheet 1
Solubility of cinnamic acid in benzene
5mL volumetric flask: 0.164M
2mL volumetric flask: 0.420M
1mL volumetric flask: 0.331M

Solubility of cinnamic acid in toluene
5mL volumetric flask: 0.372M
2mL volumetric flask: 0.245M
1mL volumetric flask: 0.085M

Solubility of cinnamic acid in chloroform
5mL volumetric flask: 1.016M
2mL volumetric flask: 1.172M
1mL volumetric flask: 0.830M

Discussion

Two previous experiments have found cinnamic acid to have a solubility of 0.252M (at 22.5C) and 0.335M (at 28C) in benzene. The results of this experiment ranged from 0.164M to 0.420M at 25C depending on the volume of the volumetric flask used. These results are similar to those solubility values already obtained.

Previous experiments examining the solubility of cinnamic acid in toluene have found a mean solubility of 0.226M. This experiment found the solubility to range from 0.085M to 0.372M when using different volumetric flasks. Even though this is a rather large range, it does agree with the mean solubility value of 0.226M.

Previous experiments examining the solubility of cinnamic acid in chloroform have found a mean solubility of 0.963M. This experiment found the solubility to range from 0.830M to 1.172M when using different volumetric flasks. This range is consistant with the mean solubility of 0.963M.

Conclusion

Through the density method, it was found that the solubility of cinnamic acid at 25C in benzene ranges from 0.164M-0.420M. It was found that the solubility of cinnamic acid at 25C in toluene ranges from 0.085M-0.372M and the solubility in chloroform at 25C ranges from 0.830M-1.172M.

Log

2011-11-21

14:07 - Created water bath in 150mL beaker on the hot plate. Initial water temperature was 25C.
14:14 - 0.599g of trans-cinnamic acid was transferred to a 20mL glass test tube labeled tube 1.
14:17 - 0.611g of cinnamic acid was transferred to a test tube labeled tube 2.
14:20 - 1.788g of cinnamic acid was transferred to a test tube labeled tube 3.
14:24 - Approximately 10mL of benzene was added to tube 1. The tube was capped with a screw cap and sealed with parafilm.
14:31 - Approximately 10mL of toluene was added to tube 2. The tube was capped with a screw cap and sealed with parafilm.
14:36 - Approximately 10 mL of chloroform was added to tube 3. The tube was capped with a screw cap and sealed with parafilm.
14:38 - Each test tube was inverted several times in order to vigorously mix each solution.
14:40 - The three test tubes were placed in the water bath, which had a temperature of 44C.
14:45 - The solute went into solution quickly in each solution. Tubes 1 and 2 still had some solute left, but all the solute had already entered the solution in tube 3.
14:53 - The solute of tubes 1 and 3 have entered solution, but tube 2 still has some solute remaining.
14:55 - The supernatant is removed from tube 2 and placed in a new tube, that is also labeled 2. Tubes 1 and 3 are not changed, because there is no solid left in the solution.
14:57 - All three tubes are placed in a 25C water bath.
15:01 - All three of the tubes are sonicated for five seconds and precipitate becomes visible in each solution.
15:08 - Volumetric flasks of volume 5mL, 2mL and 1mL are dried and weighed empty. 5mL flask weighed 19.2750g. 2mL flask weighed 9.2209g. 1mL flask weighed 20.3766g.
15:14 - Each of these flasks were filled with benzene and weighed. 5mL flask weighed 23.5885g. 2mL flask weighed 10.9629g. 1mL flask weighed 21.2366g.
15:24 - Each of the flasks were emptied, dried and weighed empty. 5mL flask weighed 19.2715g. 2mL flask weighed 9.2207g. 1mL flask weighed 20.3769g.
15:29 - Each of these flasks were filled with toluene and weighed. 5mL flask weighed 23.5200g. 2mL flask weighed 10.9505g. 1mL flask weighed 21.2313g.
15:39 - Each of the flasks were emptied, dried and weighed empty. 5mL flask weighed 19.2713g. 2mL flask weighed 9.2196g. 1mL flask weighed 20.3765g.
15:44 - Each of these flasks were filled with chloroform and weighed. 5mL flask weighed 26.5394g. 2mL flask weighed 12.1896g. 1mL flask weighed 21.8272g.
15:54 - Each of the flasks were emptied, dried and weighed empty. 5mL flask weighed 19.2693g. 2mL flask weighed 9.2202g. 1mL flask weighed 20.3754g.
15:57 - Tube 1 (benzene) was removed from the 25C water bath. There was precipitate at the bottom of the tube. The supernatant was removed from the tube and placed in the volumetric flasks. The volumetric flasks were weighed. 5mL flask weighed 23.6158g. 2mL flask weighed 10.9951g. 1mL flask weighed 21.2488g.
16:11 - Each of the flasks were emptied, dried and weighed empty. 5mL flask weighed 19.2721g. 2mL flask weighed 9.2212g. 1mL flask weighed 20.3767g.
16:14 - Tube 2 (toluene) was removed from the 25C water bath. There was precipitate at the bottom of the tube. The supernatant was removed from the tube and placed in the volumetric flasks. The volumetric flasks were weighed. 5mL flask weighed 23.5985g. 2mL flask weighed 10.9706g. 1mL flask weighed 21.2346g.
16:28 - Each of the flasks were emptied, dried and weighed empty. 5mL flask weighed 19.2717g. 2mL flask weighed 9.2201g. 1mL flask weighed 20.3766g.
16:30 - Tube 3 (chloroform) was removed from the 25C water bath. There was precipitate at the top of the solution. The supernatant was removed from the tube and placed in the volumetric flasks. the volumetric flasks were weighed. 5mL flask weighed 26.3684g. 2mL flask weighed 12.1018g. 1mL flask weighed 21.7996g.